The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
) assessment is a psychometric
questionnaire designed to measure psychological
preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions These preferences were extrapolated from the typological
theories proposed by Carl Gustav Jung
and first published in his 1921 book Psychological Types
edition, 1923). Jung theorized that there are four principal psychological functions by which we experience the world: sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking. One of these four functions is dominant most of the time.
The original developers of the personality inventory were Katharine Cook Briggs
and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers
; these two, having studied extensively the work of Jung, turned their interest of human behaviour into a devotion of turning the theory of psychological types to practical use. They began creating the indicator during World War II
, believing that a knowledge of personality preferences would help women who were entering the industrial workforce for the first time to identify the sort of war-time jobs that would be "most comfortable and effective". The initial questionnaire grew into the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which was first published in 1962. The MBTI focuses on normal populations and emphasizes the value of naturally occurring differences. Robert Kaplan and Dennis Saccuzzo believe "the underlying assumption of the MBTI is that we all have specific preferences in the way we construe our experiences, and these preferences underlie our interests, needs, values, and motivation"